CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
First and foremost, I want to revisit my thoughts and ideas on implementing CCSS from THIS earlier post. The point to stress is that "textual evidence" is not that which is ONLY found in a textbook. Textual evidence is written support of an idea or concept on a particular topic.
Considering that definition, to cite specific textual evidence simply means that students must analyze primary and secondary sources to find the significant meaning in that source. They must be able to tie that information into the overall theme of your study, and should be able to apply the information to other, similar pieces of textual evidence.
Use the following strategies to help students with this standard:
- Spiral Questioning - Ask students questions about the text, image, document section, etc. that increase in the level of complexity. Begin with simple, direct questions. This can be done during lecture, with text reading, while viewing images, or in any class situation where new information is being introduced.
- What do you see?
- What does it say?
- What would be the literal meaning?
- What could be the symbolic meaning?
- Why would the author/artist/creator include this information?
- What is significant about this journal entry/poem/image/poster/cartoon...?
- How does this tie into our topic of study?
- What is the bigger picture?
- What is its overall significance in time/history/the world...?
- Analysis Assignments, Worksheets, Homework - simple handouts with text, quotes, images, lyrics, charts, data, etc where students are to answer pertinent (spiraling) questions to evaluate the evidence in the piece.
- Individual Analysis Activities - Use "Walking Tours" or "Internet Image Searches" to allow students the opportunity to investigate evidence on their own for further evaluation. Encourage students to really look at the evidence and consider it for their own meaning as well as the desired meaning for content understanding.
- Group Analysis Activities - Use Centers Activities or Response Groups to encourage students to work in small groups to understand evidence presented to them. Use share outs to review pertinent information and to stress the key points you desire for your topic.
- Whole Class Analysis Activities - Turn your lectures into Interactive Lectures where students can take part in the lesson. Allow them to analyze images or quotes before you introduce each new topic or piece of information in your lesson. Allow class discussion, and value the teachable moments that arise in the analysis process.
- Protest Posters
- Political Campaign Posters
- Journal Entries
- Political Cartoons
- Character Quotes
- Perspective Pieces
- Anything that allows your students to show their understanding and ability to apply the information from the textual evidence analyzed in the lesson.
For a variety of Analysis Activities and Interactive Lectures, visit the Analysis Section or Interactive Lecture Notes Section of my TpT Store.
Find out how to implement Standard 2 in my next blog post!